Hello from Reading
Since 2001, I've been working at Reading University Department of Meteorology (not to be confused with Metrology or Meteoritics). I work within NCAS Climate, the National Centre for Atmospheric Science: Climate Directorate and the Walker Institute.

I work with Rowan in the Atlantic European Climate Group. I'm interested in decadal climate variabilty - with a particular focus on the Atlantic ocean and Europe. I previously worked on PREDICATE and DYNAMITE - both EU projects. I'm now working on analysis of decadal variability in high resolution models, in particular HiGEM. I'm interested in examing the impact that decadal variations in Atlantic SST have on Atlantic and European climate. Ultimately we believe such decadal variations could be linked to variantions in the the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

Before all this, I was an itinerant theoretical physicist

cheesy photo

Talks and Posters



Current Work

I'm currently examining MOC variability within the HiGEM and HadGEM control runs.

Plot Archive

This archive contains some of my recent analysis.
It uses a perl script called parc - more about that here.

Animations Archive

Sometimes it's useful to to look at fields evolving in time! (this requires java.)


There are a few pages I've written on HOW TO do things, they're mainly to remind me, but you could even find them useful too.
HOWTO calculate EOFs.
HOWTO use Optimal Filtering/Predictable Component Analysis.
HOWTO calculate Stream Function etc from U and V
HOWTO manipulate NetCDF Files
HOWTO use EPS images in MS Windows applications
HOWTO convert an EPS image to a (good quality) GIF
HOWTO Rotate a PS file
HOWTO add an animation to a Powerpoint presentation
HOWTO Convert a ps file to CMYK
HOWTO setup and Run a MetUM-GOML Ensemble expt.
HOWTO setup and Run a UM expt.
HOWTO Extract netCDF fields from a UM archive using getf
HOWTO Write Modsets using nupdate and nmodex
HOWTO Extract fields as netcdf files from UM model archived output on HPCX

You can find more HOWTOs on our group page here.

Useful links

If you're looking for information of how to use the MetOffice Unified Model then the CGAM UM Wiki would be a good place to start.
If you're trying to extract data from a UM model run on HPCX - then you might find this tool useful.

Ferret is my plotting package of choice. It's very flexible and allows you to produce complex plots very quickly. There's a local copy of the manual here. Search the Ferret mailing list archive for answers to those tricky ferret problems!
Org is a simple perl script for organising meetings:


AMO index from Sutton and Hodson, 2005

The index was constructed from an annual mean area average of
HadISST from 0:60N,75:7.5W (1870-2003).
Unfiltered index netcdf excel csv
Detrended Low Pass (37 point Henderson Filter) Filtered index netcdf excel csv
Updated index (1870-2009):
Unfiltered index netcdf excel csv
Detrended Low Pass (37 point Henderson Filter) Filtered index netcdf excel csv



The signal-to-noise paradox in climate forecasts: revisiting our understanding and identifying future priorities
A. Weisheimer, L. H. Baker, J. Bröcker, C. I. Garfinkel, S. C. Hardiman, D. L. R. Hodson, T. N. Palmer, J. I. Robson, A. A. Scaife, J. A. Screen, T. G. Shepherd, D. N. Smith, R. T. Sutton (2024), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, (), e-print

Signal‐to‐noise and predictable modes of variability in winter seasonal forecasts
Daniel L. R. Hodson, Rowan T. Sutton, Adam A. Scaife (2023), Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 149 (755), 2598-2616 e-print

Challenges with interpreting the impact of Atlantic Multidecadal Variability using SST-restoring experiments
Christopher H. O'Reilly, Matthew Patterson, Jon Robson, Paul-Arthur Monerie, Daniel Hodson, Yohan Ruprich-Robert (2023), npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 6 (), e-print

Coupled climate response to Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in a multi-model multi-resolution ensemble
Daniel L. R. Hodson, Pierre-Antoine Bretonnière, Christophe Cassou, Paolo Davini, Nicholas P. Klingaman, Katja Lohmann, Jorge Lopez-Parages, Marta Martín-Rey, Marie-Pierre Moine, Paul-Arthur Monerie, Dian A. Putrasahan, Christopher D. Roberts, Jon Robson, Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Emilia Sanchez-Gomez, Jon Seddon, Retish Senan (2022), Climate Dynamics, 59 (), 805-836 e-print

Impacts of Atlantic multidecadal variability on the tropical Pacific: a multi-model study
Yohan Ruprich-Robert, Eduardo Moreno-Chamarro, Xavier Levine, Alessio Bellucci, Christophe Cassou, Frederic Castruccio, Paolo Davini, Rosie Eade, Guillaume Gastineau, Leon Hermanson, Dan Hodson, Katja Lohmann, Jorge Lopez-Parages, Paul-Arthur Monerie, Dario Nicoli, Said Qasmi, Christopher D. Roberts, Emilia Sanchez-Gomez, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Nick Dunstone, Marta Martin-Rey, Rym Msadek, Jon Robson, Doug Smith, Etienne Tourigny (2021), npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 4 (1), e-print

Role of the Atlantic multidecadal variability in modulating East Asian climate
Paul-Arthur Monerie, Jon Robson, Buwen Dong, Daniel Hodson (2021), Climate Dynamics, 56 (), 381-398 e-print

The evaluation of the North Atlantic climate system in UKESM1 historical simulations for CMIP6
Jon Robson, Yevgeny Aksenov, Thomas J. Bracegirdle, Oscar Dimdore-Miles, Paul T. Griffiths, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Daniel L.R. Hodson, James Keeble, Claire MacIntosh, Alex Megann, Scott Osprey, Adam C. Povey, David Schröder, Mingxi Yang, Alexander T. Archibald, Ken S. Carslaw, Lesley Gray, Colin Jones, Brian Kerridge, Diane Knappett, Till Kuhlbrodt, Maria Russo, Alistair Sellar, Richard Siddans, Bablu Sinha, Rowan Sutton, Jeremy Walton, Laura J. Wilcox (2020), Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12 (9), e-print

Aerosol-forced AMOC changes in CMIP6 historical simulations
Matthew B. Menary, Jon Robson, Richard Allan, Ben B. B. Booth, Christophe Cassou, Guillaume Gastineau, Jonathan Gregory, Daniel Hodson, Colin Jones, Juliette Mignot, Mark Ringer, Rowan Sutton, Laura Wilcox, Rong Zhang (2020), Geophysical Research Letters, (), e-print

Historical simulations with HadGEM3-GC3.1 for CMIP6
Martin B. Andrews, Jeff K. Ridley, Richard A. Wood, Timothy Andrews, Edward W. Blockley, Ben Booth, Eleanor Burke, Andrea J. Dittus, Piotr Florek, Lesley J. Gray, Stephen Haddad, Steven C. Hardiman, Leon Hermanson, Dan Hodson, Emma Hogan, Gareth S. Jones, Jeff R. Knight, Till Kuhlbrodt, Stergios Misios, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Mark A. Ringer, Jon Robson, Rowan T. Sutton (2020), Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12 (6), e-print

Effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on the global monsoon
Paul-Arthur Monerie, Jon Robson, Buwen Dong, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Nicholas P. Klingaman (2019), Geophysical Research Letters, 46 (3), 1765-1775 e-print

Decadal prediction of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in the HiGEM high-resolution climate model
Jon Robson, Irene Polo, Dan L. R. Hodson, D. P. Stevens, Len C. Shaffrey (2018), Climate Dynamics, 50 (3-4), 921-937 e-print

Decadal predictions with the HiGEM high resolution global coupled climate model: description and basic evaluation
Len C. Shaffrey, Daniel Hodson, Jon Robson, D. P. Stevens, Ed Hawkins, Irene Polo, I. Stevens, Rowan T. Sutton, Grenville Lister, A. Iwi, D. Smith, A. Stephens (2017), Climate Dynamics, 48 (1), 297-311 e-print

A mechanism of internal decadal atlantic ocean variability in a high-resolution coupled climate model
Matthew B. Menary, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Jon I. Robson, Rowan T. Sutton, Richard A. Wood (2015), Journal of Climate, 28 (19), 7764-7785 e-print

Exploring the impact of CMIP5 model biases on the simulation of North Atlantic decadal variability
Matthew B. Menary, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Jon I. Robson, Rowan T. Sutton, Richard A. Wood, Jonathan A. Hunt (2015), Geophysical Research Letters, 42 (14), 5926-5934 e-print

Contrasting interannual and multidecadal NAO variability
T. Woollings, C. Franzke, D. L. R. Hodson, B. Dong, E. A. Barnes, C. C. Raible, J. G. Pinto (2015), Climate Dynamics, 45 (1-2), 539-556 e-print

An anatomy of the cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean in the 1960s and 1970s
Daniel L. R. Hodson, Jon I. Robson, Rowan T. Sutton (2014), Journal of Climate, 27 (21), 8229-8243 e-print

Atlantic overturning in decline?
Jon Robson, Dan Hodson, Ed Hawkins, Rowan Sutton (2014), Nature Geoscience, 7 (1), 2-3 e-print

Identifying uncertainties in Arctic climate change projections
Daniel L. R. Hodson, Sarah P. E. Keeley, Alex West, Jeff Ridley, Ed Hawkins, Helene T. Hewitt (2013), Climate Dynamics, 40 (11-12), 2849-2865 e-print

Have aerosols caused the observed Atlantic multidecadal variability?
Rong Zhang, Thomas L. Delworth, Rowan Sutton, Daniel L. R. Hodson, Keith W. Dixon, Isaac M. Held, Yochanan Kushnir, John Marshall, Yi Ming, Rym Msadek, Jon Robson, Anthony J. Rosati, MingFang Ting, Gabriel A. Vecchi (2013), Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70 (4), 1135-1144 e-print

The impact of resolution on the adjustment and decadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in a coupled climate model
Daniel L. R. Hodson, Rowan T. Sutton (2012), Climate Dynamics, 39 (12), 3057-3073 e-print

Climate impacts of recent multidecadal changes in Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Temperature: A multimodel comparison
Daniel Louis Richard Hodson, Rowan Timothy Sutton, C. Cassou, N. Keenlyside, Y. Okumura, T. Zhou (2010), Climate Dynamics, 34 (7-8), 1041-1058 e-print

Why the western Pacific subtropical high has extended westward since the late 1970s
T. Zhou, R. Yu, J. Zhang, H. Grange, C. Cassou, C. Deser, Daniel Louis Richard Hodson, E. Sanchez-Gomez, N. Keenlyside, X. Xin, Y. Okumura (2009), Journal of Climate, 22 (8), 2199-2215 e-print

Exploring Multi-model atmospheric GCM Ensembles with ANOVA
D.L.R Hodson, R.T. Sutton (2008), Climate Dynamcs, 31 (7-8), 973-986 e-print

North Atlantic weather regimes response to Indian-western Pacific Ocean warming: A multi-model study
E SanchezGomez, C. Cassou, D. L. R. Hodson, N. Keenlyside, Y. Okumura, T. Zhou (2008), Geophysical Research Letters, 35 (15), L15706 e-print

Climate response to basin-scale warming and cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean
R. Sutton, D. Hodson (2007), Journal of Climate, 20 (5), 891-907 e-print

Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate
R. T. Sutton, D. L. R. Hodson (2005), Science, 309 (5731), 115-118 e-print

Influence of the ocean on North Atlantic climate variability 1871-1999
R.T. Sutton, D.L.R. Hodson (2003), Journal Of Climate, 16 (), 3296-3313 e-print

The role of the Atlantic Ocean in climate forecasting. Proceedings of the ECMWF workshop on the role of the upper ocean in medium and extended range forecasting
R.T. Sutton, D.L.R. Hodson, P.P. Mathieu (2003), , (), e-print

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Dan Hodson
+44(0) 118 378 7901
Department of Meteorology,
University of Reading,
Earley Gate, PO Box 243,
Reading RG6 6BB

Current CO2 level in the atmosphere